History of Crimea

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Satellite image of the Black Sea, with the lighter-colored Sea of Azov and the Crimean peninsula in the center of the picture.

The recorded history of the Crimean Peninsula, historically known as Tauris, Taurica (Greek: Ταυρική or Ταυρικά), and the Tauric Chersonese (Greek: Χερσόνησος Ταυρική, "Tauric Peninsula"), begins around the 5th century BC when several Greek colonies were established along its coast, the most important of which was Chersonesos near modern day Sevastopol, with Scythians and Tauri in the hinterland to the north. The southern coast gradually consolidated into the Bosporan Kingdom which was annexed by Pontus and then became a client kingdom of Rome (63 BC – 341 AD). The south coast remained Greek in culture for almost two thousand years including under Roman successor states, the Byzantine Empire (341 AD – 1204 AD), the Empire of Trebizond (1204 AD – 1461 AD), and the independent Principality of Theodoro (ended 1475 AD). In the 13th century, some Crimean port cities were controlled by the Venetians and by the Genovese, but the interior was much less stable, enduring a long series of conquests and invasions. In the medieval period, it was partially conquered by Kievan Rus' whose prince was baptised at Sevastopol starting the Christianization of Kievan Rus'. The north and centre of Crimea fell to the Mongol Golden Horde, and in the 1440s the Crimean Khanate formed out of the collapse of the horde but quite rapidly itself became subject to the Ottoman Empire, which also conquered the coastal areas which had kept independent of the Khanate. A major source of prosperity in these times were frequents raids into Russia for slaves.

In 1774, the Ottoman Empire was defeated by Catherine the Great. After two centuries of conflict, the Russian fleet had destroyed the Ottoman navy and the Russian army had inflicted heavy defeats on the Ottoman land forces. The ensuing Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca forced the Sublime Porte to recognize the Tatars of the Crimea as politically independent. Catherine the Great's incorporation of the Crimea in 1783 from the defeated Ottoman Empire into the Russian Empire increased Russia's power in the Black Sea area. The Crimea was the first Muslim territory to slip from the sultan's suzerainty. The Ottoman Empire's frontiers would gradually shrink, and Russia would proceed to push her frontier westwards to the Dniester. From 1853 to 1856, the strategic position of the peninsula in controlling the Black Sea meant that it was the site of the principal engagements of the Crimean War, where Russia lost to a French led alliance.

During the Russian Civil War, Crimea changed hands many times and was where Wrangel's anti-Bolshevik White Army made their last stand with many anti-Communist fighters and civilians escaping to Istanbul with up to 150,000 murdered in Crimea. In 1921 the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created. Crimea was occupied by Germany during the Second World War and afterwards a number of nationalities, including the Crimean Tartars, were deported to other parts of the USSR. The ASSR was dissolved in 1945, and the Crimea became an oblast which and was then transferred to the Ukrainian SSR on the 300th anniversary of the Treaty of Pereyaslav. From 1991 the territory was covered by the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, although in 1995 the Republic was forcibly abolished by Ukraine with the Autonomous Republic of Crimea established firmly under Ukrainian authority. A 1997 treaty partitioned the Soviet Black Sea Fleet allowing Russia to continue basing its fleet in Sevastopol with the lease extended in 2010.

Crimea's status is disputed. In 2014 Crimea saw intense demonstrations against the removal of the Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych culminating in pro Russian forces occupied strategic points in Crimea and the Republic of Crimea declared independence from Ukraine following a disputed referendum supporting reunification. Russia then formally annexed Crimea although most countries recognise Crimea as part of Ukraine.

Prehistory[edit]

Archaeological evidence of human settlement in Crimea dates back to the Middle Paleolithic. Neanderthal remains found at Kiyik-Koba Cave have been dated to about 80,000 BP.[1] Late Neanderthal occupations have also been found at Starosele (c. 46,000 BP) and Buran Kaya III (c. 30,000 BP).[2]

Archaeologists have found some of the earliest anatomically modern human remains in Europe in the Buran-Kaya caves in the Crimean Mountains (east of Simferopol). The fossils are about 32,000 years old, with the artifacts linked to the Gravettian culture.[3][4] During the Last Glacial Maximum, along with the northern coast of the Black Sea in general, Crimea was an important refuge from which north-central Europe was re-populated after the end of the Ice Age. The East European Plain during this time was generally occupied by periglacial loess-steppe environments, although the climate was slightly warmer during several brief interstadials and began to warm significantly after the beginning of the Late Glacial Maximum. Human site occupation density was relatively high in the Crimean region and increased as early as c. 16,000 years before the present.[5]

Proponents of the Black Sea deluge hypothesis believe Crimea did not become a peninsula until relatively recently, with the rising of the Black Sea level in the 6th millennium BC.

The beginning of the Neolithic in Crimea is not associated with agriculture, but instead with the beginning of pottery production, changes in flint tool-making technologies, and local domestication of pigs. The earliest evidence of domesticated wheat in the Crimean peninsula is from the Chalcolithic Ardych-Burun site, dating to the middle of the 4th millennium BC[6]

By the 3rd millennium BC, Crimea had been reached by the Yamna or "pit grave" culture, assumed to correspond to a late phase of Proto-Indo-European culture in the Kurgan hypothesis.

Antiquity[edit]

Tauri and Scythians[edit]

The Scythian treasure of Kul-Oba, in eastern Crimea.
Orestes, a curly-haired young man in a Greek robe, is seated before a small group of trees, clasping the right hand of another Greek man, who is standing with his left hand on the seated man's arm. Standing to their left but in the right of the painting is a tall, robed woman of elegant bearing. Behind her are two columns of a classic Greek temple. Low mountains are in the far background.

In the early Iron Age, Crimea was settled by two groups: the Tauri in southern Crimea, and the East Iranian-speaking Scythians north of the Crimean Mountains.

Taurians intermixed with the Scythians starting from the end of 3rd century BC were mentioned as "Tauroscythians" and "Scythotaurians" in the works of ancient Greek writers.[7][8] In Geographica, Strabo refers to the Tauri as a Scythian tribe.[9] However, Herodotus states that the Tauri tribes were geographically inhabited by the Scythians, but they are not Scythians.[10] Also, the Taurians inspired the Greek myths of Iphigenia and Orestes.

The Greeks, who eventually established colonies in Crimea during the Archaic Period, regarded the Tauri as a savage, warlike people. Even after centuries of Greek and Roman settlement, the Tauri were not pacified and continued to engage in piracy on the Black Sea.[11] By the 2nd century BC they had become subject-allies of the Scythian king Scilurus.[12]

The Crimean Peninsula north of the Crimean Mountains was occupied by Scythian tribes. Their center was the city of Scythian Neapolis on the outskirts of present-day Simferopol. The town ruled over a small kingdom covering the lands between the lower Dnieper River and northern Crimea. In the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, Scythian Neapolis was a city "with a mixed Scythian-Greek population, strong defensive walls and large public buildings constructed using the orders of Greek architecture".[13] The city was eventually destroyed in the mid-3rd century AD by the Goths.

Greek settlement[edit]

The ancient Greeks were the first to name the region Taurica after the Tauri.[14] As the Tauri inhabited only mountainous regions of southern Crimea, at first the name Taurica was used only to this southern part, but later it was extended to name the whole peninsula.

Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea in the 5th century BCE.

Greek city-states began establishing colonies along the Black Sea coast of Crimea in the 7th or 6th century BC.[15] Theodosia and Panticapaeum were established by Milesians. In the 5th century BC, Dorians from Heraclea Pontica founded the sea port of Chersonesos (in modern Sevastopol).

The Persian Achaemenid Empire under Darius I expanded to Crimea as part of his campaigns against the Scythians in 513 BCE.[citation needed]

In 438 BC, the Archon (ruler) of Panticapaeum assumed the title of the King of Cimmerian Bosporus, a state that maintained close relations with Athens, supplying the city with wheat, honey and other commodities. The last of that line of kings, Paerisades V, being hard-pressed by the Scythians, put himself under the protection of Mithridates VI, the king of Pontus, in 114 BC. After the death of this sovereign, his son, Pharnaces II, was invested by Pompey with the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus in 63 BC as a reward for the assistance rendered to the Romans in their war against his father. In 15 BC, it was once again restored to the king of Pontus, but from then ranked as a tributary state of Rome.

The "Chersonesus Tauricus" of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770

Roman Empire[edit]

Fragment of a marble relief depicting a Kore, 3rd century BC, from Panticapaeum, Taurica (Crimea), Bosporan Kingdom

In the 2nd century BC, the eastern part of Taurica became part of the Bosporan Kingdom, before becoming a client kingdom of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC.

During the AD 1st, 2nd and 3rd centuries, Taurica was host to Roman legions and colonists in Charax, Crimea. The Charax colony was founded under Vespasian with the intention of protecting Chersonesos and other Bosporean trade emporiums from the Scythians. The Roman colony was protected by a vexillatio of the Legio I Italica; it also hosted a detachment of the Legio XI Claudia at the end of the 2nd century. The camp was abandoned by the Romans in the mid-3rd century. This de facto province would have been controlled by the legatus of one of the Legions stationed in Charax.

Throughout the later centuries, Crimea was invaded or occupied successively by the Goths (AD 250), the Huns (376), the Bulgars (4th–8th century), the Khazars (8th century).

Crimean Gothic, an East Germanic language, was spoken by the Crimean Goths in some isolated locations in Crimea until the late 18th century.[16]

Middle Ages[edit]

Rus' and Byzantium[edit]

The Chersonesus Cathedral, built on the site where Vladimir the Great is believed to have been baptized in 989 CE.

In the 9th century CE, Byzantium established the Theme of Cherson to defend against incursions by the Rus' Khaganate. The Crimean peninsula from this time was contested between Byzantium, Rus' and Khazaria. The area remained the site of overlapping interests and contact between the early medieval Slavic, Turkic and Greek spheres.

It became a center of slave trade. Slavs were sold to Byzantium and other places in Anatolia and the Middle-East during this period.[citation needed]

In the mid-10th century, the eastern area of Crimea was conquered by Prince Sviatoslav I of Kiev and became part of the Kievan Rus' principality of Tmutarakan. The peninsula was wrested from the Byzantines by the Kievan Rus' in the 10th century; a major Byzantine outpost, Chersonesus was taken in 988 CE. A year later, Grand Prince Vladimir of Kiev accepted the hand of Emperor Basil II's sister Anna in marriage, and was baptized by the local Byzantine priest at Chersonesus, thus marking the entry of Rus' (later Russia) into the Christian world.[17] Chersonesus Cathedral marks the location of this historic event.

During the collapse of the Byzantine state some cities fell to its creditor[citation needed] the Republic of Genoa who also conquered cities controlled by its rival the Venice. During the entirety of this period the urban areas were Greek-speaking and eastern Christian.

The Crimean Steppe[edit]

Throughout the ancient and medieval period the interior and north of Crimea was occupied by a changing cast of invading steppe nomads, such as the Tauri, Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Crimean Goths, Alans, Bulgars, Huns, Khazars, Kipchaks and Mongols.

The Bosporan Kingdom had exercised some control of the majority of the peninsula at the height of its power, with Kievan Rus' also having some control of the interior of Crimea after the tenth century.

Mongol invasion and later medieval period[edit]

Genoese fortress of Caffa
Khan Uzbek Mosque 1314, Staryi Krym

The overseas territories of Trebizond, Perateia, had already been subjected to pressure from the Genoese and Kipchaks by the time Alexios I of Trebizond died in 1222, before the Mongol invasions began its western sweep through Volga Bulgaria in 1223.

Kiev lost its hold on the Crimean interior in the early 13th century due to the Mongol invasions. In the summer of 1238 Batu Khan devastated the Crimean peninsula and pacified Mordovia, reaching Kiev by 1240. The Crimean interior came under the control of the Turco-Mongol Golden Horde from 1239 to 1441. The name Crimea (via Italian, from Turkic Qirim) originates as the name of the provincial capital of the Golden Horde, the city now known as Staryi Krym.

Trebizond's Perateia soon became the Principality of Theodoro and Genoese Gazaria, respectively sharing control of the south of Crimea until the Ottoman intervention of 1475.

In the 13th century the Republic of Genoa seized the settlements which their rivals, the Venetians, had built along the Crimean coast and established themselves at Cembalo (present-day Balaklava), Soldaia (Sudak), Cherco (Kerch) and Caffa (Feodosiya), gaining control of the Crimean economy and the Black Sea commerce for two centuries.[citation needed] Genoa and its colonies fought a series of wars with the Mongol states between the 13th and 15th centuries.[18]

In 1346 the Golden Horde army besieging Genoese Kaffa (present-day Feodosiya) catapulted the bodies of Mongol warriors who had died of plague over the walls of the city. Historians have speculated that Genoese refugees from this engagement may have brought the Black Death to Western Europe.[19]

Crimean Khanate (1443–1783)[edit]

Crimea in the middle of the 15th century
The Crimean Khanate in 1600

After Timur destroyed a Mongol Golden Horde army in 1399,[citation needed] the Crimean Tatars founded an independent Crimean Khanate under Hacı I Giray (a descendant of Genghis Khan) by 1443.[20] Hacı I Giray and his successors reigned first at Qırq Yer, then - from the beginning of the 15th century - at Bakhchisaray.[21]

The Crimean Tatars controlled the steppes that stretched from the Kuban to the Dniester River, however, they were unable to take control of the commercial Genoese towns in the Crimea. After the Crimean Tatars asked for help from the Ottomans, an Ottoman invasion of the Genoese towns led by Gedik Ahmed Pasha in 1475 brought Kaffa and the other trading towns under their control.[22]: 78 

After the capture of the Genoese towns, the Ottoman Sultan held Khan Meñli I Giray captive,[23] later releasing him in return for accepting Ottoman suzerainty over the Crimean Khans and allowing them rule as tributary princes of the Ottoman Empire.[22]: 78 [24] However, the Crimean Khans still had a large amount of autonomy from the Ottoman Empire, and followed the rules they thought best for them.

Crimean Tatars introduced the practice of raids into Ukrainian lands (the Wild Fields), in which they captured slaves for sale.[22]: 78  For example, from 1450 to 1586, eighty-six Tatar raids were recorded, and from 1600 to 1647, seventy.[22]: 106  In the 1570s close to 20,000 slaves a year went on sale in Kaffa.[25]

Slaves and freedmen formed approximately 75% of the Crimean population.[26] In 1769 a last major Tatar raid, which took place during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774, saw the capture of 20,000 slaves.[27]

Tatar society[edit]

The Crimean Tatars as an ethnic group dominated the Crimean Khanate from the 15th to the 18th centuries. They descend from a complicated mixture of Turkic peoples who settled in the Crimea from the 8th century, presumably also absorbing remnants of the Crimean Goths and the Genoese. Linguistically, the Crimean Tatars are related to the Khazars, who invaded the Crimea in the mid-8th century; the Crimean Tatar language forms part of the Kipchak or Northwestern branch of the Turkic languages, although it shows substantial Oghuz influence due to historical Ottoman Turkish presence in the Crimea.

A small enclave of Crimean Karaites, a people of Jewish descent practising Karaism who later adopted a Turkic language, formed in the 13th century. It existed among the Muslim Crimean Tatars, primarily in the mountainous Çufut Qale area.

Cossack incursions[edit]

In 1553–1554 Cossack Hetman Dmytro Vyshnevetsky (in office: 1550-1557) gathered together groups of Cossacks and constructed a fort designed to obstruct Tatar raids into Ukraine. With this action, he founded the Zaporozhian Sich, with which he would launch a series of attacks on the Crimean Peninsula and the Ottoman Turks.[22]: 109 

In 1774, the Ottoman Empire was defeated by Catherine the Great. After two centuries of conflict, the Russian fleet had destroyed the Ottoman navy and the Russian army had inflicted heavy defeats on the Ottoman land forces. The ensuing Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca forced the Sublime Porte to recognize the Tatars of the Crimea as politically independent, meaning that the Crimean Khans fell under Russian influence with the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca[22]: 176  the Crimean Khans fell under Russian influence with the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca[22]: 176  Catherine the Great's incorporation of the Crimea in 1783 from the defeated Ottoman Empire into the Russian Empire increased Russia's power in the Black Sea area.[28]

Swallow's Nest, built in 1912 for businessman Baron Pavel von Steingel

The Crimea was the first Muslim territory to slip from the sultan's suzerainty. The Ottoman Empire's frontiers would gradually shrink, and Russia would proceed to push her frontier westwards to the Dniester.

Russian Empire (1783–1917)[edit]

A map of what was called New Russia during the time of the Russian Empire. Only the parts of New Russia that are now in Ukraine are shown.

The Taurida Oblast was created by a decree of Catherine the Great on 2 February 1784. The center of the oblast was first in Karasubazar but was moved to Simferopol later in 1784. The establishment decree divided the oblast into 7 uyezds. However, by a decree of Paul I on 12 December 1796, the oblast was abolished and the territory, divided into 2 uyezds (Akmechetsky [Акмечетский] and Perekopsky [Перекопский]) was attached to the second incarnation of the Novorossiysk Governorate.

After 1799, the territory was divided into uyezds. At that time, there were 1,400 inhabited villages and 7 towns—Simferopol, Sevastopol, Yalta, Yevpatoria, Alushta, Feodosiya, and Kerch.

In 1802, in the course of Paul I's administrative reform of areas that were annexed from the Crimean Khanate, the Novorossiysk Governorate was again abolished and subdivided. Crimea was attached to a new Taurida Governorate established with its centre at Simferopol. The governorate included both the 25,133 km2 Crimea as well as 38,405 km2 of adjacent areas of the mainland. In 1826 Adam Mickiewicz published his seminal work The Crimean Sonnets after traveling through the Black Sea Coast.

By the late 19th century, Crimean Tatars continued to form a slight plurality of Crimea's still largely rural population but there were large numbers of Russians and Ukrainians as well as smaller numbers of Germans, Jews (including Krymchaks and Crimean Karaites), Bulgarians, Belarusians, Turks, Armenians, and Greeks and Roma.

The Tatars were the predominant portion of the population in the mountainous area and about half of the steppe population. Russians were concentrated most heavily in Feodosiya district. Germans and Bulgarians settled in the Crimea at the beginning of the 19th century, receiving a large allotment and fertile land and later wealthy colonists began to buy land, mainly in Perekopsky and Evpatoria uyezds.

Detail of Franz Roubaud's panoramic painting The Siege of Sevastopol (1904)

Crimean War[edit]

The Crimean War (1853–1856), a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Duchy of Nassau,[29] was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. Russia and the Ottoman Empire went to war in October 1853 over Russia's rights to protect Orthodox Christians; to stop Russia's conquests France and Britain entered in March 1854. While some of the war was fought elsewhere, the principal engagements were in Crimea.

The immediate cause of the war involved the rights of Christian minorities in Palestine, which was part of the Ottoman Empire. The French promoted the rights of Roman Catholics, and Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire, the expansion of the Russian Empire in the preceding Russo-Turkish Wars, and the British and French preference to preserve the Ottoman Empire to maintain the balance of power in the Concert of Europe. It has widely been noted that the causes, in one case involving an argument over a key, had never revealed a "greater confusion of purpose" but led to a war that stood out for its "notoriously incompetent international butchery".

Following action in the Danubian Principalities and in the Black Sea, allied troops landed in Crimea in September 1854 and besieged the city of Sevastopol, home of the Tsar's Black Sea Fleet and the associated threat of potential Russian penetration into the Mediterranean. After extensive fighting throughout Crimea, the city fell on 9 September 1855. The war ended with a Russian loss in February 1856.

The war devastated much of the economic and social infrastructure of Crimea. The Crimean Tatars had to flee from their homeland en masse, forced by the conditions created by the war, persecution and land expropriations. Those who survived the trip, famine and disease, resettled in Dobruja, Anatolia, and other parts of the Ottoman Empire. Finally, the Russian government decided to stop the process, as the agriculture began to suffer due to the unattended fertile farmland.

The Swallow's Nest, a symbol of Crimea, one of the best-known, romantic castles near Yalta. It was built in 1912 in the Neo-Gothic style by the order of the Baltic German Baron Stengel. It was designed by Russian architect Leonid Sherwood.

Potemkin sank a submarine[edit]

In 1909, the Russian battleship Potemkin accidentally sank a Russian submarine.

Russian Civil War (1917–1921)[edit]

Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, the military and political situation in Crimea was chaotic like that in much of Russia. During the ensuing Russian Civil War, Crimea changed hands numerous times and was for a time a stronghold of the anti-Bolshevik White Army. It was in Crimea that the White Russians led by General Wrangel made their last stand against Nestor Makhno and the Red Army in 1920. When resistance was crushed, many of the anti-Bolshevik fighters and civilians escaped by ship to Istanbul.

Approximately 50,000 White prisoners of war and civilians were summarily executed by shooting or hanging after the defeat of General Wrangel at the end of 1920.[30] This is considered one of the largest massacres in the Civil War.[31]

A 25-ruble banknote of the Crimean Regional Government

Between 56,000 and 150,000 of the Whites were murdered as part of the Red Terror, organized by Béla Kun.

Crimea changed hands several times over the course of the conflict and several political entities were set up on the peninsula. These included:

Country Jurisdiction Period Details
Russian Revolution and Civil War (1917–1921) Crimean People's Republic December 1917 – January 1918 Crimean Tatar government
Taurida Soviet Socialist Republic 19 March – 30 April 1918 Bolshevik government
Ukrainian People's Republic May–June 1918
First Crimean Regional Government 25 June – 25 November 1918 German puppet state under Lipka Tatar General Maciej (Suleyman) Sulkiewicz
Second Crimean Regional Government November 1918 – April 1919 Anti-Bolshevik government under Crimean Karaite former Kadet member Solomon Krym
Crimean Socialist Soviet Republic 2 April – June 1919 Bolshevik government
South Russian Government February 1920 – April 1920 Government of White movement's General Anton Denikin
Government of South Russia April (officially, 16 August) – 16 November 1920 Government of White movement's General Pyotr Wrangel
Bolshevik Revolutionary committee government November 1920 – 18 October 1921 Bolshevik government under Béla Kun (until 20 February 1921), then Mikhail Poliakov
Crimean Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic 18 October 1921 – 30 June 1945 Autonomous republic of the Russian SFSR
Soviet Union (1922–1991)

Soviet Union (1921–1991)[edit]

Interbellum[edit]

London Geographical Institute's 1919 map of Europe showing Crimea
Stalin on board the "Red Ukraine" warship, Crimean coast near the village of Mukhalatka, 1929

Crimea became part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic on 18 October 1921 as the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic,[24] which became part of the Soviet Union in 1922, with a degree of autonomy and run as a Crimean Tatar enclave.[32]

However, this did not protect the Crimean Tatars, who constituted about 25% of the Crimean population,[33] from Joseph Stalin's repressions of the 1930s.[24] The Greeks were another cultural group that suffered. Their lands were lost during the process of collectivisation, in which farmers were not compensated with wages. Schools which taught Greek were closed and Greek literature was destroyed, because the Soviets considered the Greeks as "counter-revolutionary" with their links to capitalist state Greece, and their independent culture.[24]

From 1923 until 1944 there was an effort to create Jewish settlements in Crimea. There were two attempts to establish Jewish autonomy in Crimea, but both were ultimately unsuccessful.[34]

Crimea experienced two severe famines in the 20th century, the Famine of 1921–1922 and the Holodomor of 1932–1933.[35] A large Slavic population influx occurred in the 1930s as a result of the Soviet policy of regional development. These demographic changes permanently altered the ethnic balance in the region.

World War II[edit]

During World War II, Crimea was a scene of some of the bloodiest battles. The leaders of the Third Reich were anxious to conquer and colonize the fertile and beautiful peninsula as part of their policy of resettling the Germans in Eastern Europe at the expense of the Slavs. In the Crimean campaign, German and Romanian troops suffered heavy casualties in the summer of 1941 as they tried to advance through the narrow Isthmus of Perekop linking Crimea to the Soviet mainland. Once the German army broke through (Operation Trappenjagd), they occupied most of Crimea, with the exception of the city of Sevastopol, which was besieged and later awarded the honorary title of Hero City after the war. The Red Army lost over 170,000 men killed or taken prisoner, and three armies (44th, 47th, and 51st) with twenty-one divisions.[36]

Sevastopol held out from October 1941 until 4 July 1942 when the Germans finally captured the city. From 1 September 1942, the peninsula was administered as the Generalbezirk Krim (general district of Crimea) und Teilbezirk (and sub-district) Taurien by the Nazi Generalkommissar Alfred Eduard Frauenfeld (1898–1977), under the authority of the three consecutive Reichskommissare for the entire Ukraine. In spite of heavy-handed tactics by the Nazis and the assistance of the Romanian and Italian troops, the Crimean mountains remained an unconquered stronghold of the native resistance (the partisans) until the day when the peninsula was freed from the occupying force.

The Crimean Jews were targeted for annihilation during Nazi occupation. According to Yitzhak Arad, "In January 1942 a company of Tatar volunteers was established in Simferopol under the command of Einsatzgruppe 11. This company participated in anti-Jewish manhunts and murder actions in the rural regions."[37] Around 40,000 Crimean Jew were murdered.[38]

The successful Crimean offensive meant that in 1944 Sevastopol came under the control of troops from the Soviet Union. The so-called "City of Russian Glory" once known for its beautiful architecture was entirely destroyed and had to be rebuilt stone by stone. Due to its enormous historical and symbolic meaning for the Russians, it became a priority for Stalin and the Soviet government to have it restored to its former glory within the shortest time possible.[39][self-published source?]

The Crimean port of Yalta hosted the Yalta Conference of Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill which was later seen as dividing Europe between the Communist and democratic spheres.

Deportation of Crimean Tatars[edit]

On 18 May 1944, the entire population of the Crimean Tatars were forcibly deported in the "Sürgün" (Crimean Tatar for exile) to Central Asia by Joseph Stalin's Soviet government as a form of collective punishment on the grounds that they allegedly had collaborated with the Nazi occupation forces and formed pro-German Tatar Legions.[22]: 483  On 26 June of the same year Armenian, Bulgarian and Greek population was also deported to Central Asia, and partially to Ufa and its surroundings in the Ural mountains. A total of more than 230,000 people – about a fifth of the total population of the Crimean Peninsula at that time – were deported, mainly to Uzbekistan. 14,300 Greeks, 12,075 Bulgarians, and about 10,000 Armenians were also expelled. By the end of summer 1944, the ethnic cleansing of Crimea was complete. In 1967, the Crimean Tatars were rehabilitated, but they were banned from legally returning to their homeland until the last days of the Soviet Union. The deportation was formally recognized as a genocide by Ukraine and three other countries between 2015 and 2019.

The Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was abolished on 30 June 1945 and transformed into the Crimean Oblast (province) of the Russian SFSR. A process of detatarization was started to remove the memory of the Tartars.

1954 Transfer to Ukraine[edit]

On 19 February 1954, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR under Nikita Khrushchev issued a decree on the transfer of the Crimean region of the RSFSR to the Ukrainian SSR.[40][41] The action was attributed to Nikita Khrushchev, then-First Secretary of the Communist Party.[42] This Supreme Soviet Decree states that this transfer was motivated by "the commonality of the economy, the proximity, and close economic and cultural relations between the Crimean region and the Ukrainian SSR".[43] The year 1954 happened to mark the 300th anniversary of the Treaty of Pereyaslav, which was signed in 1654 by representatives of the Ukrainian Cossack Hetmanate and Tsar Alexis of Russia.[44] At that time no vote or referendum took place, and Crimean population had no say in the transfer (also typical of other Soviet border changes). After the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, doubts have been expressed – from the Russian side by all means, but even by Western historians (Richard Sakwa, "Frontline Ukraine. Crisis in the Borderlands", 2015) – about the very legitimacy of the 1954 transition of Crimea to Ukraine; in the critics' view the transition contradicted even the Soviet law.[citation needed]

The construction of North Crimean Canal, a land improvement canal for irrigation and watering of Kherson Oblast in southern Ukraine, and the Crimean peninsula, was started in 1957 soon after the transfer of Crimea. The canal also has multiple branches throughout Kherson Oblast and the Crimean peninsula. The main project works took place between 1961 and 1971 and had three stages. The construction was conducted by the Komosomol members sent by the Komsomol travel ticket (Komsomolskaya putyovka) as part of shock construction projects and accounted for some 10,000 "volunteer" workers.

In post-war years, Crimea thrived as a tourist destination, with new attractions and sanatoriums for tourists. Tourists came from all around the Soviet Union and aligned countries, particularly from the German Democratic Republic.[24] In time the peninsula also became a major tourist destination for cruises originating in Greece and Turkey. Crimea's infrastructure and manufacturing also developed, particularly around the sea ports at Kerch and Sevastopol and in the oblast's landlocked capital, Simferopol. Populations of Ukrainians and Russians alike doubled, with more than 1.6 million Russians and 626,000 Ukrainians living on the peninsula by 1989.[24]

Ukrainian sovereignty over Crimea (1991–2014)[edit]

Crimea's southernmost point is the Cape of Sarych on the northern shore of the Black Sea, currently used by the Russian Navy.

With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Crimea became part of the newly independent Ukraine. A referendum in Crimea in January 1991 overwhelmingly voted for Crimea to be a sovereign Soviet Republic independent of Ukraine. Ukrainian Independence was supported by a referendum in all regions of the Ukrainian SSR, including Crimea (although Crimea's result was considerably less than other districts including those in the Russian speaking east and south of Ukraine).[45][46] In 1992, the Ukrainian government created the office of the Presidential representative of Ukraine in Crimea. At first Crimeam authorities attempted to claim that Crimea was a sovereign Republic albeit with a relationship with Ukraine and in 1994 elected a President, the pro-Russian Yuriy Meshkov.

In 1995 after conflicts with the Crimean Parliament Meshkov was deposed by Ukrainian special forces and replaced by Kyiv-appointed Anatoliy Franchuk, which was done with the intent to rein in Crimean aspirations of autonomy.[47] The Verkhovna Rada, the parliament of Crimea, voted to grant Crimea "extensive home rule" during the dispute.[48] and its status of being subordinate to Kyiv was confirmed eventually by the remaining Crimean authorities. Its name was changed from the Republic of Crimea to the Autonomous Republic. After an interim constitution lasting from 4 April 1996 to 23 December 1998, the current constitution was put into effect.

In 1994, Russia pledged to uphold the territorial integrity of Ukraine in the Budapest Memorandum also signed by the US and UK.[49][50]

There was also an issue around the situation of the Black Sea Fleet based on the peninsula. In 1992, Russian president Boris Yeltsin and Ukraine's Leonid Kravchuk agreed to divide the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet between newly formed Russian and Ukrainian Navies.[51] appointing Eduard Baltin as the commander of the Black Sea Fleet in 1993. Following the ratification of the May 1997 Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Partnership on friendship and division of the Black Sea Fleet, international tensions slowly eased off. With the treaty, Moscow recognized Ukraine's borders and territorial integrity, and accepted Ukraine's sovereignty over Crimea and Sevastopol.[22]: 600  In a separate agreement, Russia was to receive 80 percent of the Black Sea Fleet and use of the military facilities in Sevastopol on a 20-year lease.[22]: 600  However, other controversies between Ukraine and Russia remained, including the ownership of a lighthouse on Cape Sarych where the Russian Navy ignored a Sevastopol Government Court order for the abandonment of the lighthouse.[52][53] After chaotic scenes in the Ukrainian parliament the lease on a Russian naval base was extended until 2042 in return for natural Gas[54][55]

Before 2014, Crimea can be considered a part of the political base of then President Viktor Yanukovych. Thus, in the period just prior to 2014, Crimea was not experiencing intense mobilization against Ukraine or on behalf of absorption into Russia.[56]

During the early 1990s the repatriation of Crimean Tartars that had started in 1989 was taking place, although many of the Crimean Tartars who returned to the peninsula ended up in tents working menial jobs. Crimean Tartars made up around 12% of the Crimean population in 2014.

Russian annexation (2014–2015)[edit]

After Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych was overthrown Russian President Vladimir Putin tasked the security agencies with starting work on the return of Crimea.[57][58] Within days, on 26 February 2014, hundreds of pro-Russia and pro-Ukraine protesters clashed in front of the parliament building in Simferopol. The previous day, 300–500 pro-Russia protesters chanting "Russia" had replaced the flag of Ukraine with the flag of the Russian Federation.[59] Leaders of Crimean Tatars organised a meeting in order to block a meeting of Crimean parliament which is "doing everything to execute plans of separation of Crimea from Ukraine".[60][61] According to the Russian state media, the pretext of the clash was the purported abolition, on 23 February 2014, of a controversial law on the status of regional languages.

On 27 February, Russian armed forces without insignias seized the building of the Supreme Council of Crimea and the building of the Council of Ministers in Simferopol.[62][63] Whilst the "little green men" were occupying the Crimean parliament building, the parliament held an emergency session.[64][65] It voted to terminate the Crimean government, and replace Prime Minister Anatolii Mohyliov with Sergey Aksyonov.[66] According to the Constitution of Ukraine, the Prime Minister of Crimea is appointed by the Supreme Council of Crimea in consultation with the President of Ukraine.[67][68] Both Aksyonov and speaker Vladimir Konstantinov stated that they viewed Viktor Yanukovych as the de jure president of Ukraine, through whom they were able to ask Russia for assistance.[69]

The "little green men" began to surround Ukrainian bases in the peninsula and soon individuals were kidnapped. On 11 March, after disagreements between Crimea, Sevastopol, and the interim Government in Ukraine, the Crimean parliament and the city council of Sevastopol adopted a resolution to show their intention to unilaterally declare themselves independent as a single united nation with the possibility of joining the Russian Federation as a federal subject, should voters approve to do so in an upcoming referendum.

On 16 March, Crimea's government claimed that nearly 96% of those who voted in Crimea supported joining Russia. The vote received no international recognition and, aside from Russia, no country had sent official observers there.

On 17 March, the Crimean parliament officially declared its independence from Ukraine and requested to join the Russian Federation.

On 18 March 2014, the self-proclaimed independent Republic of Crimea signed a treaty of accession to the Russian Federation. The accession was granted but separately for each the former regions that composed it: one accession for the Autonomous Republic of Crimea as the Republic of Crimea—the same name as the short-lived self-proclaimed independent republic - and another accession for Sevastopol as a federal city. The accession was only recognised internationally by a few states with most regarding the action as illegal. Though Ukraine refused to accept the annexation, the Ukrainian military began to withdraw from Crimea on March 19.[70]

All actions of Crimean parliament were declared null and void by Ukrainian constitutional court that led to its disbandment by Ukrainian parliament.

The Ukrainian parliament has stated that the referendum is unconstitutional. The United States and the European Union said they consider the vote to be illegal, and warned that there may be repercussions for the Crimean ballot.

On March 21, 2014, Russia formalized the annexation of Crimea within its Federal Constitution.[71][72] On 21 and 22 March, the Venice Commission of the Council of Europe declared the referendum contradicted the principle of indivisility of the country, as it was established in the Ukraine's Constitution, and also that it hadn't been performed in line with European democratic standards.[73]

On 27 March, the U.N. General Assembly passed a non-binding resolution 100 in favour, 11 against and 58 abstentions in the 193-nation assembly that declared invalid Crimea's Moscow-backed referendum.[74][75][76][77][78] Since 2014, the UN General Assembly has voted several times, most recently in December 2019,[79] to affirm Ukraine's territorial integrity, condemn the 'temporary occupation' of Crimea, and reaffirm nonrecognition of its annexation.[79]

On 31 March 2014, the Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev announced a series of programmes aimed at swiftly incorporating the territory of Crimea into Russia's economy and infrastructure. Medvedev announced the creation of a new ministry for Crimean affairs, and ordered Russia's top ministers who joined him there to make coming up with a development plan their top priority.[80] On 3 April 2014, the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol became parts of Russia's Southern Military District.[81] On 11 April 2014, the Republic's parliament approved the new Constitution of the Republic of Crimea which came into legal effect the following day.[82] On 1 June 2014 Crimea officially switched over to the Russian ruble as its only form of legal tender.[83] On May 7, 2015 Crimea switched its phone codes (Ukrainian number system) to the Russian number system.[84]

In July 2015, Russian Prime Minister, Dmitry Medvedev, declared that Crimea had been fully integrated into Russia.[85]

Aftermath of the Russian annexation (2015–present)[edit]

Within days of the signing of the accession treaty, the process of integrating Crimea into the Russian federation began: in March the Russian ruble went into official circulation[86] and clocks were moved forward to Moscow time,[87] in April a new revision of the Russian Constitution was officially released with the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol included in the list of federal subjects of the Russian Federation,[88] and in June the Russian ruble became the only form of legal tender.[89] In July 2015, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev stated that Crimea had been fully integrated into Russia.[90]

Once Ukraine lost control of the territory in 2014, it shut off the water supply of the North Crimean Canal which supplies 85% of the peninsula's freshwater needs from the Dnieper river, the nation's main waterway.[91]

May Day parade in Simferopol, 1 May 2019.

After 2014 the Russian government invested heavily in the peninsula's infrastructure—repairing roads, modernizing hospitals and building the Crimean Bridge that links the peninsula to the Russian mainland. Development of new sources of water was undertaken, with huge difficulties, to replace closed Ukrainian sources.[92]

On 18 September 2016, the whole of Crimea participated in the Russian legislative election.

In 2017 the Russian government also began modernising the Simferopol International Airport,[93] which opened its new terminal in April 2018.[94]

Russia provides electricity to Crimea via a cable beneath the Kerch Strait. In June 2018 there was a full electrical outage for all of Crimea, but the power grid company Rosseti reported to have fixed the outage in approximately one hour.[95]

On 28 December 2018, Russia completed a high-tech security fence marking the de facto border between Crimea and Ukraine.[96]

Russia has since the annexation supported large migration into Crimea, and the Office of the Federal State Statistics Service in Crimea and Sevastopol records as of 2021 since 2014 205,559 Russians have moved to Crimea. Ukrainian Ministry and Crimean Human Rights Group say the real number could unofficially be many times higher.[97][98][99]

In 2022, Russia conquered portions of Kherson Oblast, which allowed it to unblock the North Crimean canal by force, resuming water supply into Crimea.[100]


In 2021, Ukraine launched the Crimea Platform a diplomatic initiative aimed at protecting the rights of Crimean inhabitants and ultimately reversing the illegal annexation of Crimea.[101]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Allworth, Edward, ed. Tatars of the Crimea. Return to the Homeland (Duke University Press. 1998), articles by scholars
  • Barker, W. Burckhardt (1855). A short historical Account of the Crimea, from the earliest ages and during the Russian occupation. old fashioned and anti-Russian.
  • Cordova, Carlos. Crimea and the Black Sea: An environmental history. (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015.)
  • Dickinson, Sara. "Russia's First 'Orient': Characterizing the Crimea in 1787." Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 3.1 (2002): 3-25. online
  • Fisher, Alan (1981). "The Ottoman Crimea in the Sixteenth Century". Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 5 (2): 135–143.
  • Kent, Neil (2016). Crimea: A History. Hurst Publishers. ISBN 9781849044639.
  • Kizilov, Mikhail B. (2005). "The Black Sea and the Slave Trade: The Role of Crimean Maritime Towns in the Trade in Slaves and Captives in the Fifteenth to Eighteenth Centuries". International Journal of Maritime History. 17 (1): 211–235. doi:10.1177/084387140501700110. S2CID 162235937.
  • Kirimli, Hakan. National Movements and National Identity Among the Crimean Tatars (1905 - 1916) (E.J. Brill. 1996)
  • Magocsi, Paul Robert (2014). This Blessed Land: Crimea and the Crimean Tatars. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-7727-5110-2.
  • Milner, Thomas. The Crimea: Its Ancient and Modern History: the Khans, the Sultans, and the Czars. Longman, 1855. online
  • O'Neill, Kelly. Claiming Crimea: A History of Catherine the Great's Southern Empire (Yale University Press, 2017).
  • Ozhiganov, Edward. "The Crimean Republic: Rivalries for Control." in Managing Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Russian and American Perspectives (MIT Press. 1997). pp. 83–137.
  • Pleshakov, Constantine. The Crimean Nexus: Putin's War and the Clash of Civilizations (Yale University Press, 2017).
  • Sasse, Gwendolyn. The Crimea Question: Identity, Transition, and Conflict (2007)
  • Schonle, Andreas (2001). "Garden of the Empire: Catherine's Appropriation of the Crimea". Slavic Review. 60 (1): 1–22. doi:10.2307/2697641. JSTOR 2697641. PMID 18727221. S2CID 159492185.
  • UN-HABITAT (2007). Housing, Land, and Property in Crimea. UN-HABITAT. ISBN 9789211319200., recent developments
  • Williams, Brian Glyn. The Crimean Tatars: The Diaspora Experience and the Forging of a Nation (Brill 2001) online

Historiography[edit]

  • Kizilov, Mikhail; Prokhorov, Dmitry. "The Development of Crimean Studies in the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and Ukraine," Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae (Dec 2011), Vol. 64 Issue 4, pp437–452.

Primary sources[edit]

External links[edit]